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Artificial Recharge And Rainwater Harvesting Studies

In order to augment the depleting ground water resources, it is essential that the surplus monsoon runoff that flows into the sea can be conserved and recharged to augment ground water resources. CGWB prepared a Master Plan for Artificial Recharge to Ground Water - 2013 which envisages construction of about 1.11 crore recharge structures in urban and rural areas at an estimated cost of about Rs. 79178 crore to harness about 85,565 MCM surplus run-off annually. This comprises around 88 lakh recharge structures utilizing rainwater directly from roof top and more than 23 lakh structures for conserving surplus runoff to augment the groundwater resources. It is placed on the website of CGWB and also circulated to the State Governments and all Hon’ble MPs for its implementation in states/ their respective constituencies.

CGWB has prepared a Manual and subsequently a Guide on Artificial Recharge to Ground Water which provides guidelines on investigation techniques for selection of sites, planning & design of artificial recharge structures, economic evaluation & monitoring of recharge facility. These are of immense use to States/ U.T.s in planning and implementation of recharge schemes for augmentation of ground water in various parts of the country.

CGWB has identified 500 Over Exploited assessment units in nine states namely Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Telangana, Tamil Nadu & Uttar Pradesh and prepared Artificial Recharge Plans for these blocks. These plans will be useful for implementation of artificial recharge projects in these states.

To check the depleting water levels & augmentation of Water resources CGWB has implemented demonstrative artificial recharge project during VIII, IX, X & XI plans which has resulted in the annual replenishment of ground water resources of about 4.0, 45.0,2.14 & 55.20(anticipated)MCM respectively.

During VIII plan (1992-1997), 14 rainwater harvesting and recharge to ground water projects (62 structures) with the cost of Rs. 3.23 crore were implemented in 9 states. The implementation of these schemes resulted in annual recharge of 4.0 MCM of ground water

During IX Plan, 165 recharge projects were taken up for implementation in 25 States/UTs. Under these projects, 679 structures were constructed at a cost of Rs. 33.31 crore. The implementation of these schemes resulted in annual recharge of 45.0 MCM of ground water.

During X Plan, demonstrative projects were implemented in 8 identified areas in the States of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu at an estimated cost of Rs. 5.6 crore under which 197 structures were constructed. The implementation of these schemes resulted in annual recharge of 2.14 MCM of ground water

During the XI Plan, 133 demonstrative recharge projects costing Rs. 99.87 crore were approved for construction of 1661 artificial recharge structures in the 22 states/UT i.e Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Nagaland, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Telengana, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Due to some reasons 135 Artificial recharge structures have been dropped, so the revised target is 1526 against the original target of 1661. A sum of Rs. 92.70 crore was released to State implementing agencies for completion of civil works of recharge structures under the approved demonstrative recharge projects. The annual recharge is about 55.20 MCM. During XII plan there was such scheme of rain water harvesting artificial recharge with CGWB.

In order to promote rainwater harvesting, The CGWA has issued several directions and the details are listed below.

  • Directions issued vide Public Notice dated 8.10.2009 to all the Residential Group Housing Societies/ Institutions/Schools/ Hotels/ Industrial Establishments falling in the over-exploited and critical areas (except in the water logged areas) in the country to adopt Roof Top Rain Water harvesting systems in their premises.
  • Directions issued vide letter dated 8.10.2009 for Implementation of ground water recharge measures along all National Highways, State Highways and other major roads by CRRI, National Highways Authority of India, CPWD, State PWDs; along rail tracks by Indian Railways; in the Stadia by Sports Authority of India, BCCI, Departments of sports and Youth Affairs and in the Airports by Airport Authority of India, Ministry of Civil Aviation for Promoting Rain Water Harvesting/ adoption of artificial Recharge to Ground Water in the country (except in the water logged areas).
  • Directions issued vide letter dated 8.8.2006 to Chief Secretaries in 12 States and Administrations in 2 Union Territories having Over-exploited blocks to take necessary measures to promote/adopt artificial recharge to ground water/ rain water harvesting.
  • Directions issued vide Public Notice dated 25.09.2010 large and medium Industries using ground water in the over exploited and critical areas in the country (except in the water logged areas) to take up water conservation measures including recharge of ground water/rain water harvesting and adopt practices of treatment, recycle and reuse of waste water in their premises.
  • Directions issued vide letter dated 6.9.2011 to Chief Secretaries/ Administrators of all the States/ Union Territories and Ministry of Urban Development to take necessary action to adopt rain water harvesting/ artificial recharge on all the Government buildings.
  • Various Central Ministries like Ministry of Defence, Communication, Railways, Information & Broadcasting have also been requested to adopt roof top harvesting systems in their buildings for augmentation of ground water resource.

Various State Governments including Delhi have taken/ proposed regulatory measures (Annexure - IV) for making Roof Top rainwater harvesting mandatory.

Awareness Campaign:

  • Central Ground Water Board/Authority has launched awareness campaign on ground water conservation measures. Highlights of these activities are given below.

(i) Mass Awareness: Conducting mass awareness programmes on Rain Water Harvesting and Artificial Recharge of ground water throughout the country involving Central/State/ NGO's, VO's, resident welfare organizations, educational institutions, industries and individuals.

(ii)Training on Rain Water Harvesting: Conducting Training programmes to generate resource persons as a measure of capacity building for designing Rain Water Harvesting structures to augment ground water in different terrains and diverse hydrogeological conditions.

(iii) Technical Guidance for Rain Water Harvesting : Provided technical guidance and design for rain water harvesting structures to the individuals / industries / organizations in the country.

(iv) Water Conservation Campaign : Water conservation campaign is organized for various target groups like youth and children, women, farmers and villagers, policy and opinion makers. Various publicity measures like print media, telecasting of spots on the television, broadcasting messages on radio, holding of seminars, workshops, conferences etc. were adopted for the purpose. Awareness was also generated through printing of Meghdoot post cards in Hindi and English, slogans on mail vans and letter boxes through Department of Posts.

(v) Production of Films : Films were produced on Rain water harvesting in Urban areas, Rain water harvesting in Rural areas, Ground Water Pollution etc. and shown during various mass awareness and training programmes.

(vi)Awareness through Exhibitions : Awareness has been generated through display of working models on various aspects of ground water management and fixing stalls in exhibitions, IITF and important functions.